One of the great criticisms of the transhumanist movement is that it will only benefit wealthy, First World citizens and that the ones who need the most help, the impoverished and marginalized - including their children - will be forgotten. This is already a partial problem with current science and technology. Worse, some of those who try to help end up coming up with absurd solutions that aren’t really what the poorest and majority of disenfranchised need. Then again, some solutions, like Dean Kamen’s slingshot (if it actually does what he says) are exactly what is needed.
I’m pretty sure “postcolonial criticism” doesn’t mean anything in the context you’ve provided. Could you be more specific?
I am assuming you mean to say that our identities have been structured by the history of imperialism. Yet, I am not sure how this is at all relevant to the future of technological development. This stuff can only tell us why our current world kinda sucks.