Imagine a future in which we can simply toggle the default on human fertility, so that accidental pregnancy is a thing of the past and women become fertile only when they want to become pregnant.
By nature, adolescence switches our fertility default to “on” and it is stuck there for the next 40 years. Globally, over 100 million women want to delay, space or limit child bearing but have no control over their fertility. Even women who are lucky enough to have contraceptives like Pills or patches or injections have to keep switching fertility back off.
The latest generation of long acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are game changers. On the Pill –1960’s technology with minor tweaks–one in twelve women gets pregnant each year! With condoms, it’s one in eight. (No contraception would be eight out of ten.) With the most effective hormonal IUD available, that number is around one in seven hundred. That’s as good as sterilization, and yet fertility can be restored by a five minute procedure and returns within a few cycles.
Fit and Forget. The primary reason LARC’s are so much more effective than older contraceptive technologies is the default factor. Manufacturers like to talk about “perfect use”—but are you perfect? Do you know anyone who is? Next to nobody remembers to take the pill at the same time every day. And next to nobody uses the condom “perfectly” for years on end. Women typically miss several pills per month, even when they are trying really hard, even when they send themselves text message reminders. Pills and condoms have a 100% predictable, baked-in failure rate, because real live human beings are part of the equation. What’s painful is that most people don’t know that. So when contraceptives fail, they think it’s just them.
LARC’s by contrast are “fit and forget.” The implant Implanon or Nexplanon is good for three years. The Mirena IUD, which releases a mostly local micro-dose of progestin, is good for five to seven. A copper Paragard IUD is good for at least twelve. Even the Ring is headed in this direction. A one-year ring is expected to be available in the U.S. in 2014. Getting a LARC is more hassle and expense than getting a pill pack or box of condoms. It requires a medical procedure; no one technology works for everyone; and sometimes the first one isn’t a fit. But once a LARC is settled in, the expense and hassle of monthly or daily or every-time-you-have-sex contraception is over.
Choose your period. If that wasn’t enough, some LARCs have a side benefit (formerly thought of as a side effect) that radically improves the lives of many women: they reduce menstruation. Hormonal IUDs, which release a micro-dose of progestin, reduce bleeding by on average 90%, completely eliminating periods (and cramps, bloating, anemia and related menstrual morbidity) in most users by the second year. In 2009, the FDA approved the Mirena IUD to regulate menstrual bleeding. Implants and injections also can be “bleed free.” One Seattle family planning provider asks every woman who comes through her door: “How often do you want to have your period? Once a month, once every few months, or never?”
For women who are plagued monthly with cramps, nausea and worse, being able to reduce symptoms is a godsend. American women miss over 100 million hours of work annually because of menstrual symptoms. But even for women with milder periods, less may be better. Growing evidence suggests that Western women overall experience more menstrual bleeding than is optimal from a health standpoint. We have four times as many periods as our hunter gatherer ancestors. What has been called the “incessant ovulation” of modern women causes chronic anemia and may have more severe lifetime effects including increased risk of cervical, uterine and breast cancers, and osteoporosis. More and more women are opting for menstrual regulation by using continuous birth control pills, but this requires that they keep their entire bodies flooded with hormones, in contrast to the micro-dose released locally by an IUD.
Jump the Information Gap. In the U.S., young women who have not yet started families are only beginning to use IUD contraception thanks in part to an information gap. FDA approval lags behind international trends and U.S. research. The agency removed restrictive language limiting the copper ParaGard IUD to women with children only in 2005, and the agency has not yet signed off on the use of a hormonal IUD for childless women. By contrast, the World Health Organization, Center for Disease Control, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have endorsed the use of both IUD’s in young women including adolescents and childless women. In other words, the safety of this technology HTML Tutorial has been established to the satisfaction of international and professional bodies but regulations still restrict promotion of LARCs directly to young women.
In addition, while family planning specialists are rapidly shifting their clients to LARCs, other medical gatekeepers often remain mired in old habit patterns and in anxieties that were relevant to 1970’s technology. Misinformation in the medical community translates into misinformation or more often a simple absence of information among members of the public. Men and women blame themselves for failures of more traditional contraceptives, not knowing that a large human error factor is built in. Similarly, women rarely have any idea how many of their peers experience debilitating menstrual symptoms like their own. Most have not even heard that a LARC can reduce their risk of pregnancy by an order of magnitude or that menstrual regulation is a
Demand Better. Room for improvement in contraception is dramatic. In the U.S. the percent of pregnancies that are unintended has been stable between 45 and 50% for a generation. In half of these cases, the woman was using contraception in the month she got pregnant. Contraception failed. Unmarried women between the ages of 18 and 29 describe seventy percent of their pregnancies as unintended! Live births to U.S. teens are higher than any other country with similar economic development, and over half of girls who give birth as teens drop out of school. It doesn’t have to be this way. In a study of 100 post-partum teens, half were given a LARC and half the pill. At the end of a year, 20 were pregnant again in the Pill group(!), but only one in the LARC group had a repeat prenancy.
The U.S. population includes 65 million women of reproductive age. Most of these women either aren’t ready to start families or already have as many children as they desire. And yet they continue ovulating and then bleeding each month, paying a price in health and lifestyle for close to forty years. Young millennials vent their annoyance via wry commentary, “Why Periods Suck” for example at Tumblr or Twinklex or Facebook. Hundreds of older women have posted more painful tales of woe at the online Museum of Menstruation (mum.org). To the question, “Would you stop menstruating if you could?” responses fall two to one on the yes side. In an international study of over 4000 women who had a hormonal IUD, 55 percent stated that preference for shorter lighter periods was a factor in their contraceptive choice.
American women are ready for change. IUD use in the United States is dramatically low compared to other developed countries. Currently 26% of Norwegian female contraceptive users have an IUD, but less than 6% of Americans do. And yet, the U.S is showing a rapid shift in recent years. From a low of 1.3% of U.S. women using any kind of IUD in 1993, prevalence jumped to 2% by 2002 and then to 5.5% between 2006 and 2008. With FDA approval of Implanon in 2006, approval of the Mirena for menstrual symptoms in 2009, and a long acting Ring in the pipeline, we are on the cusp of a contraceptive revolution that has the potential to revolutionize our lives.
As a social commentator, Tarico writes and speaks on issues ranging from religious fundamentalism to gender roles, to reproductive rights and technologies. A primary focus is on improving access to top tier contraceptive technologies. To that end, she serves on the board of Advocates for Youth, a D.C. based nonprofit with wide-ranging programs related to reproductive health and justice. Tarico co-chairs of Washington Women for Choice, serves on the Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest Board of Advocates, and is a Senior Writing Fellow at Sightline Institute, a think tank focused on sustainable prosperity. Her articles appear at sites including the Huffington Post, Jezebel, Salon, AlterNet, and the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, and at her blog, AwayPoint.