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The new kindergarten Australis and the pedagogy of modal constructivism. An education for the future.
Pedro Villanueva   Jul 8, 2017   Ethical Technology  

This work and proposal emerged under my experience during five years working with children in school Reggio Emilia in Chile, as a teacher of art. My studies were not limited to teaching and experiencing the constructivist experiences with children and create art lesson plans. During this stage in the artistic teaching with young children I began to investigate the pedagogical education and how it could develop and deepen the curriculum or child pedagogy from the cultural point of view and from a contemporary perspective. After collect, study and investigate until I finally came to the conclusion of create a new pedagogical vision and baptized the new infant school with the name Australis, being born this theoretical view in the southern city of Chile.

First I will not write an extensive work, but in most practical possible for greater scope to those interest in the education of young children. To begin, I mention that the philosophy and pedagogy of Reggio Emilia is an educational experience that was born in 1945 in the North of Italy, in a town called Reggio Emilia.

This proposal focuses on the following basic principles and its founder is Loris Malaguzzi:

1 - The boy as protagonist: the boys and girls are strong, rich, capable and interested in relationships. All children have preparedness, potential, curiosity and interest to build their learning and trading in their environment.

2-Teacher competent, collaborator, researcher and guide: teachers accompany the children in the exploration of topics, projects, research and construction of learning.

3 - Families as allies: the participation of the families is vital and takes different forms. Parents have an active role in the children's learning experiences and help to ensure the welfare of children at the school.

4-here, the child is born with the capacity to learn, need not ask nor have adult permission to begin to learn. Learning is a cooperative and communicative, activity in which children are active agents which build the knowledge, commitment and create meaning in the world, together with adults and, equally important, with other children. A mission of the educational institution may be to provide a forum where children and adults gather to build together knowledge and culture.

5 - The atelier is the place par excellence for the experimentation, research and handling. In the atelier is heard the voice of the child over any other and is given freedom in creative processes. Students are accompanied by teachers and the atelier which complement curriculum and expression in more than one hundred potential of expression in childhood languages. The atelier is the learning space where tend bridges between artistic creation and the content of the curriculum.

6 - The atelier is a large workshop open, full of possibilities and elements available to children. A mix between box stitching and tools, mechanical workshop, glass, carpentry or painting workshop, all well beaten and a small scale. Over the years, the schools of Reggio Emilia from around the world have developed their own space of atelier for each classroom or level. The ateliers awaken the expression and creativity linked to the contents of the curriculum. All curriculum content is alive, only dies when we use passive presentation tools that sacrifice it.

The importance of continuing to evolve the learning and teaching in the education of young children in the present, we must include new methodologies according to the social-historical and cultural environment.

Constructivist Learn is the most widely used in the Reggio Emilia school. The constructivist perspective of learning can be placed in opposition to the instruction of knowledge or awareness. In general, from the constructivist stance, learning can be facilitated, but each person reconstructs his own inner experience, whereupon it can be said that the intelligence cannot be measured, since it is unique to each person, in its own internal and subjective reconstruction of reality. On the contrary, learning instruction posits that education or knowledge can be programmed, so that they can set beforehand contents, method and objectives in the process of learning, engaged in the development of this "non-measurable intelligence"

The difference may seem subtle, but sustains large implications educational, biological, geographical and in psychology. For example, applied to a classroom with students, from constructivism can create a context favourable to learning, with a motivational climate of cooperation, where each student reconstructs their learning with the rest of the group. The learning process raw material on the curricular objective, there would be no notes, but cooperation. On the other hand and also in example, since the instruction elected content taught and will optimize the learning of that content by means of a method and objectives set previously, optimizing this process. In fact, today both approaches are mixed, while learning instruction takes more presence in the educational system.

As figures of constructionism include to Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotski. Piaget focuses on how knowledge is constructed starting from the interaction with the environment. On the contrary, Vigostky focuses on how the social environment allows an internal reconstruction. The instruction of learning comes from applications from psychology behavioral, where behavioural mechanisms are specified to set the teaching of knowledge.

Due to my experience and have observed for five years the artistic development of children, I understood that needed something more to enhance education, an important factor is to give them the tools so that the children can explore possible worlds through their imagination to encourage their development in the formation, because childhood is the foundation that the future is built. After taking notes, investigate and observe, was born this epistemology to be applied in the artistic-kindergarten education. Modal constructivism towards a new pedagogical vision applied to the kindergarten Australis. But what is the modal constructivism?

But, I will first focus on Lev Vygotski.

Lev Semiónovich Vigotsky, Orsha, 1896 - Moscow, 1934) psychologist born in Russia. He was Chief of the socio-cultural orientation of Soviet psychology, along with A.R. Luria and Leontiev A.N.

Vygotsky Sociocultural theory focuses on the proactive participation of minors with the environment that surrounds them, being cognitive development as a result of a collaborative process. Lev Vigotsky argued that children develop their learning through social interaction: acquire new and better cognitive skills as a natural process of his dive to a way of life.

As Vygotsky reference mentions the social and cultural interaction, it is therefore very important that allow experiences during childhood presents that you have to live.

The eminent psychologist also investigated about the role of language in human behavior and the development of the same throughout the life of the person. Interested in the semantic aspects of language, said the idea of the words to begin being emotional; then move to designate specific objects, and finally assume its abstract meaning.

Vygotsky emphasizes concrete objects, I also mention the present as learning objects including technological objects. There is much resistance to the incorporation or inclusion of the technology in the education of children, as a negative view, which contradicts to the pedagogy of Vygotsky social-cultural.

Lev Vigotsky focused much of his work to the explanation of the origin and development of the psychic higher functions, giving special weight to the subjects concerning the language, thought and intellect.

Epistemological foundations: theory of knowledge according to the theory of dialectical and historical materialism. The dialectical interactionism as subject-object, according to Vygotsky reality between subject-object of knowledge is mediated by today that the subject performs on the object with the use of cultural tools (tools and signs).

Tools: produce transformations (externally oriented) objects.

Signs: it produces changes in the subject (internally focused).

According to his theory; the higher psychic functions have a social-cultural genesis. They are studying the impenitence of the involvement of psychological instruments or signs in the higher psychic functions and consciousness. They are considered psychological instruments to have productive social origin the social-cultural evolution as language.

Vygotsky came to the concussion that psychic development must be understood as a series of changes or specific transformations associated with changes in the use of psychological tools.

The interactionism dialectic that children learn with the interaction of the objects present, hence the game are part of his life, use objects to extend their imagination, also recreates them, created with artistic means at its disposal, this born meanings given to each object; the signs. Taking as reference in its epistemological foundation highlights the dialectical interaction of subject-object and object-subject.

Let's see what the symbolic interactionism.

The symbolic interactionism concept was coined by Herbert Blumer in 1938.

Born in St. Louis (Missouri), United States, studied at the University of Missouri and in Chicago, where he earned a doctorate in sociology and disciple was outdone by George H. Mead and of Florian Znaniecki, among others, which greatly influenced his work.

According to Blumer, who coined the term symbolic interactionism in 1938, its main premises are:

People act on the objects in your world and interact with others from the meanings of objects and people to them from the symbols. The symbol can also transcend the field of sensory stimulation, expand the perception of the environment, increase the ability of problem solving and facilitate imagination and fantasy.

The meanings are the product of social interaction, mainly communication, which becomes essential both in the Constitution of the individual as in (and because) the social production of meaning. The sign is the material object that triggers the meaning, and the meaning the social indicator that is involved in the construction of the conduct.

People select, organize, reproduce and transform the meanings in the interpretive processes based on their expectations and proposals.

Using the methodology of the symbolic interactionism is know the process of assigning meaning to the communicative experiences of the individual depending on personal and environmental circumstances at any given time, through concrete cases, in limited spaces.

What is the modal realism? Whose theory was proposed by David Kellogg Lewis, an American philosopher, considered one of the most important analytical philosophers of the last half of the 20th century.

Modal realism holds that all possible worlds are real worlds in the sense that exist in the same way in which exists the current world in which we live. These possible worlds are defined according to their relationships space‐temporary, each possible world consisting only of those entities that area, space‐temporarily.

The most relevant properties of the worlds in modal realism are: insulation, whereby, each world can not have a relationship or sharing items with any other world, therefore all relationships between objects of different worlds, are relationships among counterparts (or duplicates) but not between the same object on two different worlds; each possible world is as concrete as the world we inhabit, as they are not merely linguistic formulations and sets of consistent propositions, but worlds such as that inhabit it; fullness, that every possible way of the world is a concrete world.

Each variation or combination of this world exists in a way specific and the only limit to have a concrete world is that there are no internal contradictions, this ensures cover all possibilities of the logical space; each possible world is the current for its inhabitants, is today is a relative property indexed to each possible world and not a wholly owned possessing any way of the world.

But they wonder why the relationship of modal realism in pedagogy. The concept of modal realism, teaches us to something very important, divergent thinking that helps to look at the same object from different points of view, the ability to multiply ideas starting with an object, a noun, an image, etc. Divergent thinking is essential in education since childhood, because the philosophy of modal realism is a great contribution.

To the pedagogy of modal constructivism.

Modal constructivism, is based on two theories; modal dialectic interactionism and modal symbolic interactionism. A completely new pedagogy, not to be confused with learning simulations used in pedagogy TIC (technologies of information and communication) in schools. That it constitutes an interdisciplinary team that includes cultural teacher, designer with knowledge in computer science and technology, educator of children and presence of education technician, still as an educational extension of the Reggio Emilia school.

With the theory of interactionism dialectical modal can work together teacher cultural (can be art, dance, music, theater) and the graphic designer with knowledge in computer science and technology, with the advice of the educator of children. In this case it is joint planning. Ensure that children can create artistic media, objects, abstract or figurative, dance movements, rhythms and tones in music, a drama theatre, etc.

With expertise in computer graphic designer collects these works are in video and photographs, to then recreate them by different means, print children's prints 3D jobs, create an augmented reality as a reference to the work performed by children, create a virtual reality, or create a mixed reality (mixed) create a projection electronic works to promote coexistence. With the goal of bringing its work towards pedagogical character possible worlds, thus reinforcing the learning and imagination.

Apart from the dialectical interactionism that is present in the production of the artistic creations made by children. With the advice of the educator, designer and cultural teacher, the modal symbolic interactionism also plays an important role. Contribute to the creation of new meanings to all possible worlds that are not present in reality and as an educational, which contributes significantly to the imagination and break mental structures of a routine nature.

In the area of the dialectic interactionism, activity Reggio Emilia is distributed first at the atelier as new school Australis as an extension of the pedagogy. Children carried out their activities in cultural atelier and graphic designer with expertise in computer science always is present, collects data, documents them with video, photography, etc. After working in reference to the children's creations, using your computer as a means of work, 3D printer, projectors to show and share what other children are doing strengthening mutual interaction, virtual machines, etc. With interactive digital art, he manages to meet the tastes and concerns of each child. With the advice of the educator or teacher's aides who knows very well the psychology and concern of each children in school.

Corresponding designer show jointly created children's creations to the potential of virtual reality worlds, augmented, impressions 3D, electronic projection subsequently to the activity carried out in the atelier of culture and it can be alternating the following day.

The advantage is remarkable, reinforces the memory of what you learned and lets you observe, feel that their creations (with a didactic basis) to transport them to possible worlds.

For more detail about interactionism symbolic modal corresponds to advise cultural monitor and graphic designer, creating new meanings to all possible worlds according to the imagination and interest of each child. This theory also plays an important role in children are present in the fantasies, performed cultural creations and interacting with their cultural creations to all possible worlds as a source of valuable cognitive information.

In reference to the sociologist Herbert Blumer; The meanings are the product of social interaction, in this case the interaction of the teaching staff and the children, mainly communication, which becomes essential both in the constitution of the individual as in (and because) the social production of meaning.

Modal constructivism develops new behaviors that motivate towards the development of a new personality of children, in the powerful ability of visualize, imagine, build possible worlds for his training from early stage to adulthood where you will be able to have a very flexible mental structure. As future designers, engineers, architects, programmers, social workers, etc.

The pedagogical basis of modal constructivism in conjunction with technical staff, cultural monitor, graphic designer with expertise in computer science, educator of children and in the presence of technical education of kindergarten. Constructivism, in its pedagogical dimension, sees learning as a result of a process of personal-groups construction of new knowledge, attitudes and life, from the existing ones and in cooperation with the children and with the facilitators. Knowing the concerns, tastes, psychology and learning processes of each child.

The team works in the new educational schedules in reference to the psychological development of children, altogether to the schedules that motivate to the creativity of universes and possible worlds always interacting with the imagination, tastes and preferences of children and not adults, in which its intervention as far as possible will be minimum.

The teaching methodology assesses the entirety of the development, the diversity of children, generating various opportunities, options and alternatives learn according to individual differences in different spaces, respecting the rhythms, tastes, interests and potential presented by children.

In the field of cultural atelier, the taller of graphic designer with knowledge in computer science and for the educator of children it is important to know this work methodology that is described below:

For Vygotsky, the problem of knowledge between the subject and the object of knowledge is resolved with the dialectical interactionist approach, (subject-object) where exist relationship of reciprocal influence between the two; has this interaction in double direction. The psychologist Yaroshevsky called an object activity, since it converts the object (the reality) and the same carrier of the activity: to the subject (human being). In the object-based activity, they materialize and expand historical-social practices (production process). Where there is a dialectical leap with respect to theories that understand the activity of the subject as a pure biologic and individual adaptation towards a conception where the activity is seen as a social practice subject to historical and cultural conditions.

Therefore, according to Vygotsky, the relationship between the subject and object of knowledge is mediated by the individual activity on the object with the use of social-cultural instruments, which according to Vygotsky can be basically of two types: tools and signs. Each these instruments, they are oriented differently to the activity of the subject. Using tools produced transformations on objects, or as I would say Vygotsky. The tools "are extremely focused" on the other hand, signs are changes in the subject who performs the activity, are oriented in the interior.

Vigoskty the participation of children in cultural activities which share with colleagues the knowledge and instruments developed by their culture allows you to learn the tools to think, visualize, and act.

In the modal dialectic interaction, play an important role; at first the children begin to interact with art and technology.

The scope of the cultural Atelier and the children use expression media art for their learning and expand creativity; the media may be objects in the Visual Arts, dance, music, theatre, etc. To learn but not a Mimetic manner, but they have the freedom to choose, select, according to your tastes and personality of each and they are free to re-create what they learned. From the point of view there is a dialectical interaction of objects, media and it subjective, in addition to sharing with other colleagues.

In the field of exploration of the imagination based on the philosophy of modal realism; adult agent interacting with the child, manages to meet your tastes and imagination of worlds possible for can be is as activity in the cultural atelier as an alternative. This information is then shared with the graphic designer with knowledge in computer science and of course through the tool of digital art also known concerns and tastes of children. Corresponds to the graphic designer play the imagination of every member with their creative works and transport them to possible worlds with different versions that can be through technological media as prints 3D, augmented, mixed reality or virtual reality and electronic imaging. You can also count on the advice of the educator of children.

These possible worlds fascinate to children as a main driver of motivation of learning which also allows you to develop divergent thinking for the future.

Now let's go to modal symbolic interactionism. We know that symbolic interactionism arises in the United States. During the 1920s, with Blumer, Mead and others, in a context of emergence of modern public opinion, the development of information technologies, the democratic system and European immigration. They study communication as a significant social fact and show a considerable interest in public opinion.

To understand the individual achievements of children, social regularities that are generated in certain cultures in space or classroom, it is necessary to consider psychological and sociological points of view without giving preference to none of them.

In a certain sense a reciprocity between individual change and development is identified through participation in social interaction, including the inevitable subjectivity of personal constructions; and the permanent realization of the culture of the classroom and the change of social regularities through individual members.

From the interactionist perspective, social interaction doesn't work as a vehicle that transforms the "objective" knowledge into subjective knowledge, but that in fact, social interaction makes it possible that subjective ideas come to be compatible with the culture and the intersubjective knowledge.

A key idea in symbolic interactionism is that meaning in (and from) the interaction and interpretation among the members of a culture. In particular, the interactionism is based on analysis of three premises:

1 Human guides their actions toward the "things" according to what these mean for him.

2. The meaning of those things is derived from, or arises as a result of social interaction that each maintains his neighbor. (Meaning source)

3. Meanings are manipulated and modified by means of an interpretive process developed by the person when faced with things that are found in its path.

A central aspect of the interactionist perspective is that the meaning through interaction and interpretation that emphasizes the interpretive process involved in the emergence of the meaning when a person responds, rather than simply react to the actions of another.

It is the result of the process of interaction between individuals. (the meaning) is a social product. (in addition) the use of meaning by a person in the Act that implies an interpretive process with two stages clearly differentiated (firstly) agent indicates itself what are the things to which route is accountable... (in second) interpretation becomes a manipulation of meaning... the interpretation is seen as a learning process in which meanings are used and reviewed as instruments for the orientation and training of the act.

(Internal) representations, which emerge through social interaction, as a viable balance between the true interests of the children and made conditions, rather than as an internal application one-on-one - one previously given realities or as an embedded reconstruction of the world are taken as individual constructs. As a result, the analysis of the activity focuses on the intentions of the participants

Therefore, interactionist perspectives, the meaning is in the use of words, phrases, or signs and symbols rather than sounds, signs or representations.

Know or remember something is conceived as the momentary activation of experienced (in its entirety) action choices, rather than as an "object", called knowledge, recoverable, storable and equitably from the "loft" of memory. The conceptual notion used in the interactionist perspective to account for this theoretical assumption is the "domain of subjective experience"

Learning and the subjective construction of meanings for an educator interactionist, learning is not precisely a commitment of the individual mind trying to adapt to an environment, or is reduced to a process of acculturation in a culture. To interactionism individual construction of meanings in the artistic, technological and pedagogical activities takes place in interaction with the culture of learning, and at the same time contributes to the establishment of this culture.

In this way, learning describes a process of training, interactive adapting to a culture through the participation actively in that culture rather than transmission standards and objective knowledge.

There something important intervention in the present teaching vision of modal realism, means that the meanings are not only specific but imaginary or modal, when develops alternative, or sets of alternative meanings or modal through oral, artistic, expressive and technological language (the strong support for the teaching of modal constructivism), under the guidance of teachers. It means that learning is amplified to imaginary or possible worlds and become rich meanings, in turn also expressive language. At the same time symbolic interactionism modal allows you to share with other colleagues by creating a positive and open feedback effect.

Support for the creation of meanings in modal and modal language is through expression orally, pedagogical, artistic and technological planning in advance together with the kindergarten educator, cultural teacher and graphic designer with knowledge of information technology and in the presence of the technician in kindergarten education. Work is done on computer to develop joint planning, although the schedules of kindergarten education, the schedules in art education and planning in educational technology are independent, but in the case of artistic and technological planning often intertwine and connect to feedback the pedagogy of modal constructivism.

Workshop or Atelier of culture.

The artistic culture is part of the pedagogical school Australis, as a symbolic cognitive expression of the child learning process.

The workshop is understood as a space and time where the artistic core learning addressed preferably without losing the integrity of the experience. The children can express themselves through different arts, including music, Visual Arts, (painting, sculpture, printmaking, drawing, performance), dance, theater, and multiple languages. Depending on the cultural teacher matching, can be art, dance, theatre, music. The workshops are instances for the creation, experimentation, observation and learning various techniques. The workshop and the diversity of materials are perceived as language, where each children, can use all the elements you need to express themselves and animate creations.

It should be noted that the quality of the creative experience is reinforced by the use of a variety of materials, styles and different techniques that allow children express their creative potential to the maximum.

Intends to carry out workshops to the day of different artistic disciplines, which in turn are related to other disciplines such as language and communication, Sciences, technology etc.

The workshops can be also a request to develop and deepen a specific topic is addressed in the educational project taking place.

It also presents the incorporation of a workshop where they work various techniques of reading, writing, interpretation and animation of stories during the year.

Technology workshop for the development of the learning of modal constructivism, with the cultural workshop.

One of the technological tools is interactive digital art that can be used in tactile computers to discover and observe the preferences, tastes, colors, forms, movements, sounds, etc. Respecting the autonomy of each child.

On the other hand, through printed replicas in 3D, can be facilitated access to elements of quickly and easily. Replicas of his creative works with new versions (modal realism) enabling children freely manipulate these replicas to complement their experiences and free expression.

On the one hand, the 3D printing would obtain three-dimensional objects of his works in phases of the creative process. And finally, within the field of history (area of the education of children), could be obtained replica constructions and utensils from ancient civilizations to help children better understand how life was in the past.

It seems that everything points to that in a few years, 3D printers will become one more device, which along with the laptop, the video projector and audio system, will form part of the essential furniture of any learning centre classroom.

The term virtual reality was coined by Jaron Lanier in 1989. Lanier, defines it as follows: "a friendly computer-generated, interactive, three-dimensional, in which plunges to a person" the "Virtual reality is a dynamic three-dimensional simulation in which the user feels inserted in an artificial environment that perceives as real based on stimuli to the sensory organs"

Tomás Maldonado in his book real worthy and the virtual¨ virtual reality means that particular type of simulated reality in which the observer (in this case Viewer and actor operator) can penetrate interactively, with the help of certain optical, auditory, or tactile prosthesis in a three-dimensional environment generated by the computer.

It is easy to deduce that this technology, which enhances the feeling of immersion, contributes effectively to eliminate the border subject-object that exists between us and the machine. As a result, our experiences in a virtual world could be of the same type that in the real world, with their main characteristics, those experiences will generate knowledge direct, personal, subjective and implicit to the extent possible. In addition, they allow a good understanding of abstract elements.

Virtual reality allows create first-person experiences, accessible originally through direct experience with the real world. Through virtual reality, it allows children to dip their creative works and transport them to a modal realism, according to the tastes and concerns of each member. This work will be involved with the joint help of graphic designer and teacher of cultural with advice the educator of children.

As active learning, the characteristics of these multimedia didactic materials include: possibility of integrating into a single support two or more socks. They are designed under the constructivist paradigm. They allow children to be able to learn to learn, think and take advantage of any training experience throughout his life. They are able to increase the interactivity to imagination and possible worlds. They allow simulate real situations according to the imagination of childhood. They have an important practical component. They allow the interrelation with other visual materials at your fingertips.

The term 'Augmented reality', hereinafter A.R, used to describe those experiences in which digital information is added (either in form of image, text, video, audio, 3D objects, or others) to a vision of the physical world in real time. To carry out this overlay of real and virtual information is required the use of technological devices such as computers with webcams, laptops, tablets, smartphones, or "wearable" devices such as the Microsoft HoloLens fixed.

The term "Augmented reality" was coined in 1992 by Tom Caudell. In its first application, the A.R served to add instructions or give advice to users on how to perform certain tasks. The development of augmented reality has been linked to the Virtual reality, but with the development of software and technology distinction is increasingly clear.

Between both poles are defined different possibilities for "mixed reality" that combines elements of both worlds, being it A.R that combination closest to the real world, since it still has the reference of the physical environment. While polo's virtual us extracted from it to usher in new scenarios modeled in 3D. The case, for example, of "Virtual reality" glasses is Oculus Rift, or Google Cardboard, which provide an immersive experience in a digital environment with 360º vision.

A determining factor for the propagation of the A.R activities applied to education is the multiplication of the use of laptops, tablets and smartphones with a didactic purpose. 1. Application of the A.R, allowing better understanding in practical training and recreate real-life situations in the creative work by children. 2. Expand knowledge of its environment with the infant imagination towards alternative and possible worlds. 3. Combining the real with the impossible. 4. Facilitating the pedagogy towards modal constructivism.

The virtual educational games with A.R, modeling of 3D objects, which allows children "create and visualize 3D models and manipulate them: bring them, move them, rotate them, place them in certain places or explore their physical properties" very useful in the area of kindergarten education.

Conclusion:

If you liked this school-project, it is important that you can promote to create in the future the first Australis school with the pedagogy of modal constructivism. This new vision is a seed that will begin to bear fruit for the new generations.

Recommended reading:

1 - What is real and what is virtual? . Author Tomás Maldonado. Editorial GEDISA, SBN: 9788474325157. Year 2009

2-Preschool in Reggio Emilia. Loris Malaguzzi. Publishing octahedron. SBN: 9788480634984. Year 2001

3 - Planning of the curriculum at the administrative level and at the level of central planning. Manuel Román spoke. Views about the design core curriculum (D.B.C) Spain. (PDF. Document)

4-curriculum foundations of early childhood education. Curriculum and evaluation unit. ISBN 9567933766. Ministry of education. Chile.

5- psychology and pedagogy Lev Semonovich Vigotsky, Alexis Leontiev; Alexander R. Luria. Editorial AKA. ISBN: 9788446022152. Year 2004.

6 - Symbolic interactionism: perspective and method. Herbert Blumer. Publishing time. ISBN: 84-85950089. In 1981.

7-possible worlds, David k. Lewis. María José Garcia-encinas translation.  University of Granada. (PDF)

8-On the plurality of Worlds. David K. Lewis. (This book is a defense of modal realism; the thesis that our world is but one of a plurality of worlds) Blackwell, Oxford 1986.  ISBN 0-631-22496-3

9-Universidad complutense de Madrid. Faculty of fine arts. Educational applications of virtual reality to the pedagogical Museum of children's art. Daniel Zapatero. ISBN: 978-84-669-3090-1. Year 2007.

10. Design of educational activities with augmented reality. Elena Paula Pajares Ortega. Work end of the Master in communication and education network: from the information society to the knowledge society. UNED. Year 2015. (PDF)

Pedro Villanueva born in Havana, 1974. He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts San Alejandro. He writes a thought known as Pluslectic, which is in line with today's world and the vision towards the future.



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