IEET > Directors > George Dvorsky > HealthLongevity
Primal Transhumanism
George Dvorsky   Jun 9, 2011   Sentient Developments  

Primal transhumanism. Oxymoron? Maybe. Burgeoning lifestyle choice for a growing number of futurists? Most definitely.

Look, it’s 2011 and it’s glaringly obvious that we’re still quite a ways off from achieving the much heralded posthuman condition. The sad truth is that all interventions or augmentations currently available are fairly low impact by any measure. There aren’t a whole lot of high tech and sophisticated options available to radically alter human performance, experience, or life expectancy.

So what’s a transhumanist to do? Just sit around and wait for something better to come along?

Hardly. An increasing number of transhumanists are taking matters into their own hands by working with what they got. And by doing so, they’re pushing the limits of their genetic potential.

While a significant segment of the transhumanist community is content to let their minds and bodies go to waste in anticipation of future interventions, there is a growing conviction amongst a number of adherents who feel that there is no better time than the present to optimize their bodies using the limited resources available. And strangely, some of these body-hacks involve an apparent technological step back.

Call it Paleo-Transhumanism

Indeed, there are a number of things we can do cavemanto extend our capacities and optimize our health in a way that’s consistent with transhumanist ideals—even if it doesn’t appear to be technologically sophisticated. While the effects of these interventions are admittedly low impact from a future-relativistic perspective, the quest for bodily and cognitive enhancement is part of the broader transhumanist aesthetic which places an emphasis on maximal performance, high quality of life, and longevity.

Consequently, anyone who professes to be a transhumanist, but does nothing to improve upon himself, is a poser. These are the people who are waiting for the magic to happen, and by consequence, are neglecting their full potential in the present moment. Transhumanism is something that’s applied in the here-and-now; it’s a recognition of the radical present and all that it has to offer.

Sure, part of being a transhumanist involves the bringing about of a radical future, including scientific research and cheerleading. But it’s also a lifestyle choice; transhumanists actively strive to exceed their body’s nascent capacities, or, at the very least, work to bring about its full potential. In addition to building a radical future, a transhumanist is someone who will, at any time in history, use the tools and techniques around them to maximize their biological well-being. And while there are a number of technological interventions at our disposal–things like pharmaceuticals, implants, and hand-held devices—there is an alternative and seemingly old-fashioned approach to bodily enhancement that’s gaining considerable currency in transhumanist sub-cultures.

Much of the fuel that drives this sentiment is the notion that modernity has actually harmed human functioning more than it has helped. Take agriculture for example. While it has (arguably) propelled human civilization forward, it has paradoxically worked to undermine human health. Anthropologists are revealing that, when compared to our Paleolithic-era ancestors, modern humans have less bone density, are smaller, and more disease ridden. Modern foods, most of which are highly processed and infused with salt and sugar, is the primary culprit—as are apparent “natural” foods like whole grains and rice. Compounding this situation is the shift from active to passive existences; modern humans now bask in the glow of their computer monitors instead of the sun. Our bodies were not meant for this kind of sedentary life and we’re now having to cope with a batch of modern diseases.

A solution to all this, it would seem, is adopting a lifestyle that is more suited to our biological needs. While it might sound contradictory to those with a futuristic bent, adopting a lifestyle that more closely approximates that of our Paleolithic ancestors would do more to foster human health than a continuation of modern habits and norms.

Strong and fit is the new geek

Okay, at the risk of sounding like a complete Luddite, I’m not suggesting that you sell your belongings and move into a cave. It’s not like that. I’m still hoping that you cart around your iPad, philosophize about the coming Singularity, and implant magnets into your finger tips. But I also feel that we need to take an evolutionary approach to human health, namely lifestyle choices that place a greater emphasis on primal eating, exercising, sleeping, and other health factors. This is how the modern transhumanist can best unlock her biological potential.

In terms of specifics, these choices include the Paleolithic diet (also called the caveman diet), fully functional interval training executed at high intensity, and 7-8 hours of sleep each night in complete darkness.

Sounds simple, and even too good to be true, but for those of us who live according to these rules the results have been extraordinary.

And when I say us I mean a good number of prominent transhumanists, a list that includes Max More, Natasha Vita-More, James Hughes, Bruce Klein, and Patri Friedman. Max and Natasha in particular have treated their bodies as shrines since the very beginning, setting a positive example for transhumanists for quite some time.

Indeed, being strong and fit is the new geek. Though not a transhumanist by name, author Timothy Ferris’s latest book, The Four Hour Body, highlights a number of techniques and “body hacks” that work to produce what he calls “superhuman” results.

I’m not sure what’s more ironic: that a primitive approach to eating and fitness is the best way to optimize human health and performance, or that computer nerds are catching on and becoming complete bad-asses by engaging in these kinds of body hacks.

Back to basics: Diet and exercise

It’s been said that in order to truly comprehend anything in biology it has to be viewed through the lens of natural selection. If we are to improve human health and performance we need to study our evolutionary underpinnings. Our bodies are adapted to a very specific kind of environment, namely the one our ancestors lived in over the course of hundreds of thousands of years. Consequently, because our species has remained largely unchanged since Paleolithic times, we are best suited to live under a very specific set of conditions.

The Paleo-diet is one approach that works to match the specific way our ancestors ate. It’s a diet that has gained serious traction in the fitness communities, not because of any commitment to naturalism or Luddism, but because it works. The primal approach to eating is now the go-to diet for many professional and elite athletes. And it’s safe to suggest they wouldn’t be doing it if it didn’t get them results.

Adherents of this diet basically reject any foods that arrived after the onset of the agricultural revolution. To that end, they consume copious amounts of meat (typically free-range, organic, and grass fed) and vegetables, along with some fruit, nuts, and seeds. Primal eaters take a very liberal approach to consuming fats, while remaining wary of gluten, high-density carbohydrates, and sugars of any sort. So, no whole grains, pasta, rice, potatoes, dairy, or processed foods. While it may sound incredibly restrictive, it’s actually not that severe; there’s considerable culinary potential even within those constraints.

But it’s not enough to base an entire diet on a philosophical or aesthetic appreciation of our primal ancestry. There has to be proven efficacy and hard science to back it up. And indeed a growing literature is emerging that both supports and propels this approach to eating. Paleo advocates like Robb Wolf, Loren Cordain, and Mat Lalonde pour through scientific studies revealing the dangers of Neolithic and processed foods while highlighting the benefits of eating whole foods.

Often accompanying the Paleo diet is a fully functional approach to fitness. The old model of going to the global gym, hitting the treadmill, and working on isolation movements in the weight room is increasingly coming to be seen as old fashioned and ineffectual. Instead, there’s a new emphasis on constantly varied compound movements performed at high intensity for short intervals. A functional movement is anything our bodies are meant to do: lift, push, pull, drag, climb, run, and jump. These exercise sessions, which depending on the workout can range anywhere from five to 25 minutes, tend to be both physically and psychologically demanding. But the gains are tremendous.

A fitness model that best exemplifies this approach is CrossFit. It’s a strength and conditioning program that combines weightlifting, sprinting, gymnastics, powerlifting, kettlebell training, plyometrics, rowing, and medicine ball training. Founded by Greg Glassman over a decade ago, CrossFit gyms are starting to pop-up around the world. CrossFit’s impact has been nothing short of revolutionary; it has turned fitness into an actual sport. Its major claim is that, through its system of tackling all ten fitness domains (cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, power, speed, agility, balance, coordination, and accuracy) it produces the best results and the worlds fittest athletes.

As a CrossFitter myself, I can certainly vouch for these claims. When I first started nearly three years ago I could barely do a push-up. Back then a 125 pound deadlift nearly made me pass out. These days, a workout involving a hundred push-ups isn’t out of the question. I have a 265 pound backsquat and I’m only five pounds away from a 400 pound deadlift. And this from a guy who spent most of his adult life completely inactive. There’s no question in my mind that the CrossFit approach is the best one. At least for me.

Being physically strong is no joke or a petty indulgence. And it is of utmost importance to those interested in extending longevity. I would make the case that physical strength does more to prolong healthy lifespan than any other lifestyle factor available today—including caloric restriction. Studies have shown that strength can add as much as a decade to your life.

In addition to proper eating and exercise, the primal lifestyle also advocates a natural approach to sleeping, which means 7-8 hours per night in the complete pitch dark. Indeed, studies have shown that this length of time is optimal and that any kind of light interrupts sleep in non-trivial ways.

Primal transhumanism…for now

I’m going to conclude with a quick reality check.

As stated earlier, the primal approach is a stop-gap measure for transhumanists until something better comes along. Those looking to optimize their health and performance in the here-and-now should seriously consider adopting this lifestyle.

This approach is certainly a “soft” form of transhumanism and it’s definitely no match for what’s still to come. Our transition away from Homo sapiens will be accompanied by more impactful technologies—interventions like genomics, cybernetics, neuropharma, and molecular nanotechnology. Once we have access to these technologies we will truly be able invoke the “trans” in “transhumanism” as our species migrates into a posthuman and potentially post-biological condition.

And in the meantime, love your body. It’s all you’ve got.

George P. Dvorsky serves as Chair of the IEET Board of Directors and also heads our Rights of Non-Human Persons program. He is a Canadian futurist, science writer, and bioethicist. He is a contributing editor at io9 — where he writes about science, culture, and futurism — and producer of the Sentient Developments blog and podcast. He served for two terms at Humanity+ (formerly the World Transhumanist Association). George produces Sentient Developments blog and podcast.

The first half of your article was an interesting and informative look at what I also consider a serious problem within some parts of the transhumanist community; namely a passive, sit-back-and-wait mentality towards what should be a lifestyle. I especially like the quote "Anyone who professes to be a transhumanist, but does nothing to improve upon himself, is a poser." I'm not sure Paleo-transhumanism is quite the right title for it though since practitioners still make use of modern day methods and knowledge but the general thrust is one I can definitely get behind. It reminds me of the Bridge One technologies Kurzweil talks about in his health books like "Fantastic Voyage" so perhaps something in that vein would be more accurate. Also this isn't so much a new development as it is a return to an older style of transhumanism, Extropianism, espoused by people like Max Moore and Natasha Vita-More that you mentioned.

The second half of your article read like a paid advertisement. I'm sorry, I realize that you want to tell people about the programs that worked for you, but the tone was incredibly off putting and detracted from the quality of the rest of the essay. I won't say much about CrossFit since on the whole I tend to agree with it but I must question some of the things you said in relation to the Paleo-diet. While any dietitian will tell you that a plant based diet is the best ignoring ten thousand years of evolution within an agricultural environment is a huge oversight. I don't doubt the Paleo-diet works for many people or that it has some merit (largely due to its plant based nature) but suggesting that grain, rather than excessive meat or highly processed food, is the culprit of our modern diet problems is setting the sights on the wrong target. This isn't even touching on the ethics of not eating meat in the first place, something I didn't think transhumanists needed to argue about any more.

Dude—meat is what turned us from apes to humans.  If we didn’t eat meat, we’d still be the small-brained, hair-covered, crawling-on-all-fours creatures we used to be.

The fact that a terrible past event played a part in making us what we are today does not make that past event any less terrible.  I have ancestors on my mother’s side that were slave owners in the Antebellum South.  As such both the slave trade and the Civil War played a direct role in me even being here today.  That does not make either of those events any less morally repugnant for the suffering they unleashed upon the world and the same can be said of our species historical hunger for flesh.

Furthermore lets say for the sake of argument that humans had not become omnivores and had not evolved to sentience.  What then?  Would anything have been lost?  I would argue no.  You might argue that something would indeed have been lost since neither you nor anyone else today would exist but it is only because you do exist that you can make that judgement.  Had you never existed to begin with you would not be a position to mourn that loss and thus would lose nothing from your own non-existence. 

As for the human race what exactly would be the tragedy had we never got passed swinging from trees?  Sure we never would have created art or science or philosophy, but who’s to say someone else wouldn’t have.  That’s the weakest part of your argument.  It assumes that having humans achieve sentience is preferable to simply having sentience evolve yet there is no reason to favor human sentience over any other kind.  Being human is not important in and of itself.  It is the higher functions we possess, functions that could have conceivably arisen elsewhere, that matter.

I’m glad someone is suggesting something other than Caloric Restriction for transhumanists because that is decidedly un-fun.

I’m not convinced that Paleo Diet is best for everyone though -
I tried it for 3 days, eating buffalo and kangaroo -
it felt morally and physically repulsive. 
I think it is an acceptable option for people who are allergic to dairy and wheat,
but I’m not, so it seemed unnecessary.
I prefer to eat lots of fish, vegetables, and anything else I want.

The interval training is similar - I think it is good for strength-building - but does it build stamina as good as an hour swim or run? 

and back to the Paleo—a lot of meat-eating—killing heaps of animals - how does that work with Buddhism?

Hi and—Just eat when you are ready to—i.e.  hungry - teally hungry—be judicious- slow and deliberate- focus on your food and enjoy it - why not? just eat good food - fish some meat - some dairy -milk cheese - crackers for crunch - a little milk - and just do not stuff yourself—slow and judicious - focus on the food and its taste - enjoy it - do not stuff and gorge—tyr eating just one meal a day for a while- fast a little eevry week - take a day off every month - do not eat for one day only - try it - good luck to all-

‘just eat when you’re hungry’, what about leptin resistance? You are familiar with the fate of glucose (and fructose) as it enters the body and is stored in either the muscles or the liver. So, what happens if liver glycogen is completely full and you’re continuing to consume carbohydrates with too much sugar?, Once the liver glycogen is full, excess carbohydrates are converted to fat in the form of a short-chain saturated fat called palmitic acid (PA).  PA is combined with a glycerol molecule and packaged with proteins and cholesterol.  What is this molecule called? A very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL).  This molecule is released from the liver and throughout the body so the fat may be used as a fuel or get stored on our rear ends.  One pretty important area these PA VLDL’s interact with is the BRAIN.  PA has a very potent effect on our metabolism and our hormonal environment in that it DECREASES our sensitivity to LEPTIN. We remain hungry, our liver eventually becomes insulin resistant and blood glucose levels soar.  This is only the beginning of the problems caused by consuming too much carbohydrates.  (Credit to Robb Wolf)


well, in fact : please analyse avatar,

the society is in fact primitive :

and well , in fact : it is a wrong idea from “liberalism culture” : you know the jungle laws

I SAY : the society in avatar is exactly the same as : the society in alien


this is a step back :

we need more empathy, and more mutual aid ! It is a factor of evolution , not only in the past but in the futur !

there is no reason we should kill each other !


don’t panick but be strong

I tried it for 3 days, eating buffalo and kangaroo -
it felt morally and physically repulsive.

Just out of curiosity, why did you find it morally repulsive?

I ate a butterfly once.

It doesn’t get any more primal than this wink

It’s being called the “poop burger”. Japanese scientists have found a way to create artificial meat from sewage containing human feces.

Somehow this feels like a Vonnegut plotline: population boom equals food shortage. Solution? Synthesize food from human waste matter. Absurd yes, but Japanese scientists have actually discovered a way to create edible steaks from human feces.

Mitsuyuki Ikeda, a researcher from the Okayama Laboratory, has developed steaks based on proteins from human excrement. Tokyo Sewage approached the scientist because of an overabundance of sewage mud. They asked him to explore the possible uses of the sewage and Ikeda found that the mud contained a great deal of protein because of all the bacteria.

The researchers then extracted those proteins, combined them with a reaction enhancer and put it in an exploder which created the artificial steak. The “meat” is 63% proteins, 25% carbohydrates, 3% lipids and 9% minerals. The researchers color the poop meat red with food coloring and enhance the flavor with soy protein. Initial tests have people saying it even tastes like beef.

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