Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies


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Technoprogressive? BioConservative? Huh?
Overview of technopolitics


whats new at ieet

Digitalisierung der Gefühle?

The Obligatory Mind Uploading Blockchain Crossover

Religion, transhumanisme et quête de transcendance

MENSCH & MASCHINE

New papers on Moral Enhancement and Brain-Based Lie Detection

Tesla (or Google) and the risk of massively distributed physical terrorist attacks


ieet books

Philosophy’s Future: The Problem of Philosophical Progress
Author
Russell Blackford and Damien Broderick eds.

Conversations with the Future: 21 Visions for the 21st Century
Nikola Danaylov

Surviving the Machine Age: Intelligent Technology and the Transformation of Human Work
Kevin LaGrandeur and James Hughes eds.

Chasing Shadows: Visions of Our Coming Transparent World
David Brin





JET

Enframing the Flesh: Heidegger, Transhumanism, and the Body as “Standing Reserve”

Moral Enhancement and Political Realism

Intelligent Technologies and Lost Life


PUBLICATIONS

Journal of Evolution and Technology - Books by IEET Authors


Journal of Evolution and Technology


The Journal of Evolution and Technology (JET) is a scholarly peer-reviewed journal published by the IEET. JET welcomes submissions on subject matters that many mainstream journals shun as too speculative, radical, or interdisciplinary on all issues relating to the future prospects of the human species and its descendants. Since its inception in 1998, JET has had five editors-in-chief: Dr. Nick Bostrom, Dr. Robin Hanson, Dr. Mark Walker, Dr. James Hughes and and (currently) Dr. Russell Blackford.

All submissions deemed to be of sufficient quality to merit consideration are reviewed by internal and external reviewers. Historically, the journal has had an acceptance rate of roughly 25%. Submission guidelines here.



Recent Books by IEET Fellows and Staff



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Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Biotechnologies That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime  (2007)
by Aubrey de Grey and Michael Rae

“Ending Aging” provides a far richer introduction and overview of SENS science, of the real prospects for progress in extending our healthy life spans, and of the nuts and bolts of getting there, than any other material published to date.


Artificial General Intelligence (Cognitive Technologies)  (2007)
by Ben Goertzel (Editor), Cassio Pennachin (Editor)

This is the first book on current research on artificial general intelligence (AGI), work explicitly focused on engineering general intelligence – autonomous, self-reflective, self-improving, commonsensical intelligence. Each author explains a specific aspect of AGI in detail in each chapter, while also investigating the common themes in the work of diverse groups, and posing the big, open questions in this vital area.


Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial That Led to the End of Human Slavery  (2006)
by Steve M. Wise

The case of James Somerset, an escaped slave, in June of 1772 in London’s Westminster Hall was a decisive turning point in human history. Steven Wise has uncovered fascinating new revelations in this case, which statesmen of the time threatened would bring the economy of the British Empire to a crashing halt. In a gripping, hour-by-hour narrative of the trial and the inflamed participants, Wise leads the reader to the extraordinary and unexpected decision by the great conservative judge, Lord Mansfield, which led to the United States’ own abolition movement. As the case drew to a close, and defenders of slavery pleaded with him to maintain the system, Mansfield’s reply has resounded down through more than two centuries: “Let Justice be done, though the Heavens may fall.”


God from the Machine: Artifical Intelligence Models of Religious Cognition  (2006)
by William Sims Bainbridge

“God from the machine” (deus ex machina) refers to an ancient dramatic device where a god was mechanically brought onto the stage to save the hero from a difficult situation. But here, William Sims Bainbridge uses the term in a strikingly different way. Instead of looking to a machine to deliver an already known god, he asks what a computing machine and its simulations might teach us about how religion and religious beliefs come to being. Bainbridge posits the virtual town of Cyburg, population 44,100. Then, using rules for individual and social behavior taken from the social sciences, he models a complex community where residents form groups, learn to trust or distrust each other, and develop religious faith. Bainbridge’s straightforward arguments point to many more applications of computer simulation in the study of religion. God from the Machine will serve as an important text in any class with a social scientific approach to religion.


Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologies In Society  (2006)
by Mihail Roco and William Sims Bainbridge

This book provides a unique review of technical developments related to the unification that is rapidly taking place today among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It assesses potential for revolutionary applications of these developments and their likely impact in improving the human condition and offers a wide variety of scholarly views on the likely societal impacts and policy implications of these developments and applications, including assessments of educational, economic, commercial, legal, ethical, political, and social implications.


Pig Tales, Human Chimeras and Man-made Public Health Hazards  (2006)
by An Ravelingien

In attempts to balance the benefits and harms potentially involved in xenotransplantation, the benefits for the prospective patients have been subordinated to the potential risks of
unleashing a xenogeneic pandemic. National and international restrictions on clinical research and trials have been set in place in order to exclude the risks for the public, but they may not prove to be fully effective for both practical and ethical reasons. The question we have attempted to answer here is whether the requirement of those stringent public health measures is inevitable. We argued that, even though the harm principle dictates that harm-doing is unacceptable when it is also other-regarding, the impermissibility of harming public health is not a moral absolute. In particular, an assessment of the acceptability is dependent on whether the promised benefits are attainable and perceived as such by the public. Furthermore, there is a particular responsibility to take account of those risk factors that have a predictable, foreseeable effect. It can be argued that accountability for a pandemic that results from an unforeseen effect of xenotransplantation should not necessarily be attributed to those involved in the development and use of the technology alone. The permissibility of harm-doing is then rendered an issue of medical ethics, in which a weighing of harms against the benefits of the procedure for the patient is of paramount importance.


The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness  (2006)
by Max Velmans (Editor), Susan Schneider (Editor)

With fifty-five peer reviewed chapters written by the leading authors in the field, The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness is the most extensive and comprehensive survey of the study of consciousness available today.


The Path to Posthumanity  (2006)
by Ben Goertzel, Stephan Vladimir Bugaj

The Hidden Pattern: A Patternist Philosophy of Mind  (2006)
by Ben Goertzel

Testament (volumes 1-4)  (2005)
by Douglas Rushkoff

Booklist: Rushkoff sets two story lines going here. In one, the draft has been reinstated in a near-future U.S., and potential draftees are implanted with chips that make their whereabouts traceable and allow the government to compel compliance. The other consists of three episodes in the story of Abraham: the near-sacrifice of Isaac, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the battle that Abraham leads to free his nephew, Lot (in Genesis, however, the battle precedes Sodom and Gomorrah). The two plots develop in tandem, with characters in one corresponding to those in the other, and the cosmic conflict between Jehovah and the combined forces of Astarte and Moloch framing both. The Isaac counterpart, grown to hunky young manhood, stars in the modern story, thereby allowing several steamy encounters with the young female characters. Well composed and drawn by Sharp, and gorgeously full colored, the whole thing is like nothing so much as Cecil B. DeMille’s first Ten Commandments (1923), with its sin, skin, liminal piety, and double plot. Ray Olson


Get Back in the Box : Innovation from the Inside Out  (2005)
by Douglas Rushkoff

Publishers Weekly: By touting the value of thinking “outside the box,” business experts have inspired an obsession with growth, competition and offbeat concepts, says Rushkoff (Cyberia; Coercion; etc.). In fact, he insists, the secret of success lies inside the box; businesses that focus on their core competencies, their customers’ needs and their work environment come up with better innovations in the long run than those that rely on flashy ad campaigns, focus groups or off-site consultants. Smart businesses, he argues, hire employees who are deeply familiar with the company’s core products and encourage innovation by cultivating a fun, collaborative work environment.


Times of Trouble (Book Three of Terminator 2: The New John Connor Chronicles)  (2005)
by Russell Blackford

The war between man and machine reaches its shattering conclusion, with John Connor and his mother, Sarah, caught in the middle! It’s a battle that rages through time and across dimensions, with the survival of two worlds at stake!


An Evil Hour (Book Two of Terminator 2: The New John Connor Chronicles)  (2005)
by Russell Blackford

Judgment Day is coming! Following the events of Book 1 (Dark Futures), the future war between the human Resistance and the forces of Skynet takes an unusual twist as Terminators from an alternate timeline invade the world of John Connor and his mother, Sarah, seeking to bring about the inevitable war that the Connors had merely delayed with their actions. But another cyborg has traveled across the dimensions to protect John—and nothing is going to prevent her from carrying out her mission!


Dark Futures (Book One of Terminator 2: The New John Connor Chronicles)  (2005)
by Russell Blackford

Following the events of Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Sarah Connor and her son, John, had thought they’d been able to alter the timeline so that neither the artificially intelligent satellite SkyNet nor its Terminator killing machines would ever be created. But if they were so successful, why, then, are they now being hunted by yet another Terminator that’s traveled back in time to ensure that John never grows up to be the charismatic leader of the few humans who survived Judgment Day? Told from the perspective of John himself, this first volume of The John Connor Chronicles provides insight to the thoughts and fears of a teenager who already knows what Fate has in store for him-and the burdens he has to bear along the path he must travel to become humanity’s future savior.


Kong Reborn  (2005)
by Russell Blackford

Jack Denham, grandson of moviemaker Carl Denham (who brought Kong to New York in 1933) clashes with a ruthless business magnate, Carlton Hemming, as both attempt to clone the giant ape, Kong, from blood samples discovered by a high-steel worker in 1999. Succeeding beyond their wildest dreams, it is quickly apparent the cloned ape belongs back in his native wilderness and not the wilds of New York. The final life-and-death struggle is played out on Skull Island—a lost world in the Indian ocean, full of monstrous creatures—where the original Kong was found over 70 years ago.


More Than Human: Embracing the Promise of Biological Enhancement  (2005)
by Ramez Naam

Booklist: Naam is optimistic about technological advancement. He surveys applications of genetic and computer engineering to the human body and pronounces them good. Naam notes but does not totally allay the disquiet of critics who think otherwise, so readers more interested in what’s happening now in the biotechnology industry will get more from this work than those concerned with the bioethical implications for human identity. Naam is a software engineer, and this is his first book, so his writing about human physiology is predominantly descriptive, albeit enthusiastically so. Naam relates how the technologies—gene therapies, genetic splicing, cloning, and neural/computer interfaces—function at the cellular level and details how they may improve on the injuries, afflictions, and conditions of life (intelligence and aging). Both the researchers and the companies developing biotechnologies receive Naam’s positive attention, and he avers that over time their inventions will become widely affordable. This confident, libertarian sentiment suffuses Naam’s approach.


Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future  (2004)
by James Hughes

In the next fifty years, life spans will extend well beyond a century. Our senses and cognition will be enhanced. We will have greater control over our emotions and memory. Our bodies and brains will be surrounded by and merged with computer power. The limits of the human body will be transcended as technologies such as artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, and genetic engineering converge and accelerate. With them, we will redesign ourselves and our children into varieties of posthumanity.

This prospect is understandably terrifying to many. A loose coalition of groups-including religious conservatives, disability rights and environmental activists-has emerged to oppose the use of genetics to enhance human beings. And with the appointment of conservative philosopher Leon Kass, an opponent of in-vitro fertilization, stem cell research and life extension, to head the President’s Council on Bioethics, and with the recent high-profile writings by authors like Francis Fukuyama and Bill McKibben, this stance has become more visible-and more infamous-than ever before.

In the opposite corner a loose transhumanist coalition is mobilizing in defense of human enhancement, embracing the ideological diversity of their intellectual forebears in the democratic and humanist movements. Transhumanists argue that human beings should be guaranteed freedom to control their own bodies and brains, and to use technology to transcend human limitations.

Identifying the groups, thinkers and arguments in each corner of this debate, bioethicist and futurist James Hughes argues for a third way, which he calls democratic transhumanism. This approach argues that we will achieve the best possible posthuman future when we ensure technologies are safe, make them available to everyone, and respect the right of individuals to control their own bodies.

Hughes offers fresh and controversial answers for many other pressing biopolitical issues-including cloning, genetic patents, human genetic engineering, sex selection, drugs, and assisted suicide-and concludes with a concrete political agenda for pro-technology progressives, including expanding and deepening human rights, reforming genetic patent laws, and providing everyone with healthcare and a basic guaranteed income.

A groundbreaking work of social commentary, Citizen Cyborg illuminates the technologies that are pushing the boundaries of humanness-and the debate that may determine the future of the human race itself.

References, Resources and Endnotes


Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence: Why Genuine Control of Aging May Be Foreseeable  (2004)
by Aubrey de Grey (editor)

This volume focuses squarely on the fact that, as a result of a wide range of advances over recent years, increasingly many specialists studying the biology of aging are revising their traditional view that mammalian aging will remain essentially immutable for many decades to come. This is exemplified by three carefully argued analyses of the current state of biomedical gerontology published recently by a variety of experts in fields including most major aspects of mammalian aging. We are therefore at an unprecedented turning point in the study of aging, in which the curiosity-driven, exploratory research that has justifiably monopolized the field until now can at last be legitimately accompanied by goal-directed, biotechnological efforts, rationally designed on the basis of solid scientific knowledge. The purpose of this volume is to consolidate that advance by making those at the forefront of each aspect of aging and its control more aware of each other’s work and by drawing attention to the comprehensiveness, and therefore the potential efficacy, of foreseeable antiaging biotechnology.


Genetically Modified Athletes  (2004)
by Andy Miah

Leading authorities predict that the genetic engineering of athletes will be widespread by the 2004 Olympics. This book is the first to examine the profound ethical issues raised by the use of genetic technologies in sport, an area of human activity in which the natural biological and physiological capacities of the body are central.


Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance  (2003)
by Mihail Roco and William Sims Bainbridge

This book provides a unique review of technical developments related to the unification that is rapidly taking place today among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It assesses potential for revolutionary applications of these developments and their likely impact in improving the human condition and offers a wide variety of scholarly views on the likely societal impacts and policy implications of these developments and applications, including assessments of educational, economic, commercial, legal, ethical, political, and social implications.


Transhuman Space: Broken Dreams  (2003)
by Jamais Cascio

Two Stars for Peace: The Case for Using U.S. Statehood to Achieve Lasting Peace in the Middle East  (2003)
by Martine Rothblatt

Que Pasaria Si…?  (2003)
by Marshall Brain, El Equipo Howstuffworks

Spanish version of Brain’s “What if?”.


Open Source Democracy  (2003)
by Douglas Rushkoff

What, asks Douglas Rushkoff in this original essay for Demos, would happen if the ‘source code’ of our democratic systems was opened up to the people they are meant to serve? ‘An open source model for participatory, bottom-up and emergent policy will force us to confront the issues of our time,’ he answers.


Drawing the Line: Science and the Case for Animal Rights  (2002)
by Steven Wise

One of those rare books that can change the reader’s view of our position in the world and within the animal kingdom, Unlocking the Cage is a landmark both in its scientific insight and in its challenge to the law. As Steven Wise continues his exploration of animal cognition along the evolutionary spectrum—from apes to dolphins, parrots, elephants, dogs, and even honeybees—he finds astonishing answers to the big question in animal rights today: Where do we draw the line? The law has firm criteria for personhood and Wise shows how certain non-human animals meet those criteria.Readers will be enthralled as they follow Wise’s firsthand investigations of the work of the world’s most famous animal experts: in Kenya with Cynthia Moss and the touchingly affectionate elephant families of Amboseli, in the mountains of Uganda with Richard Wrangham and the chimpanzees of the Kibale Forest, at MIT with Irene Pepperberg and her amazing and witty gray parrot, Alex, and in the California sanctuary where Penny Paterson has spent two decades learning about the skills and vivid personality of Koko the gorilla. In many cases, Wise was even able to sustain an extended conversation with these extraordinary creatures. Steven Wise is the world’s foremost expert on the legal rights of animals and has devoted his life to litigating, writing, and working on their behalf. No one with a shred of curiosity about animals, about rights, or about justice will want to miss this book.


Manna  (2002)
by Marshall Brain

Manna is a 2003 science fiction essay by Marshall Brain that explores several issues in modern information technology and user interfaces, including some around transhumanism. Some of its predictions, like the proliferation of automation and AI in the fast food industry, are becoming true years later.


Marshall Brain’s MORE How STUFF Works  (2002)
by Marshall Brain

Have you ever wondered How an ATM verifies your identification and account information and dispenses cash in a matter of seconds? What, if anything, is able to escape from a black hole? Why workplace surveillance is becoming more common? Whether human cloning is possible? In this full-color follow-up to the bestselling How Stuff Works, Marshall Brain travels inside your computer, to the depths of diamond mines, across the African plains, and on board an Apache helicopter to explain the magic behind how stuff works. Based on the much-lauded Web site HowStuffWorks.com, this book is your A-to-Z guide to PDAs, MRIs, LEDs, and dozens of other intriguing topics! With More How Stuff Works, you ll never again look the same way at a car wash, clothes dryer, or electronic scanner. More than 125 captivating articles Hundreds of full-color photos and illustrations Fun facts and sidebars A special chapter on “Police, Military, and Defense” Praise for HowStuffWorks.com: “A+” Washington Post Online ” Top 100 Classics.” PC Magazine “Best Science and Technology Resource.” Yahoo!andreg; InternetLife “A-” Entertainment Weekly “Great Site.” MSNBC “Super Site.” TBS Superstation


Sport Technology: History, Philosophy & Policy  (2002)
by Andy Miah

With innovations in sports equipment, doping methods and human engineering on the horizon, the ethical issues raised by such technology have become noticeably acute. The problematization of technology in sport has gone largely unnoticed in historical, philosophical and policy studies of sport, but this study traces the origins, present contexts and future of sport technology. This volume speaks to a multi-disciplinary audience, developing theory of technology and sport. It provides a foundation for theorising technological issues in sport, building upon themes in cultural studies of the cyborg, otherness and gender. The book begins with an initial contextualising of sport technology, tracing the historical roots of key moments of technological development. Subsequently, chapters work towards theorising technology in sport, providing a socio-philosophical context to ways of understanding technology. From here, applied philosophical and ethical issues focus on the themes of fearing the other, virtual reality in sport, and the use of genetic technology to augment athletic performances. Perspectives draw upon a range of theory, including the works of Alasdair MacIntyre, Jacques Ellul, Don Ihde, Donna Haraway, Andrew Feenberg, Charles Taylor, Langdon Winner, Hilary Putnam, Richard Rorty, John Rawls and Michel Foucault. This book should be relevant to scholars of sport or technology from a diverse range of perspectives. Framed by the broad disciplines of history, philosophy and policy, the issues discussed can have importance for subjects as diverse as theoretical medicine, philosophy of sport and policy studies in technology. For the latter, the aim is to provide a theoretical and ethical grounding for a coherent theory of sport performance.


What If?  (2002)
by Marshall Brain

THE AWARD-WINNING TEAM AT HOWSTUFFWORKS HAS DONE IT AGAIN! If you re intrigued by the world around you, you ll be fascinated with the compelling answers to 75 What If? questions. This latest book from Marshall Brain and the team at HowStuffWorks covers everything from gravity to the Great Pyramids, oxygen to exoskeletons. In Marshall Brain s signature style, you ll learn the cause and effect of such actions as swimming after eating a big meal, firing a gun at a television set, and purchasing ten shares of Microsoft stock when the company went public. You won t be able to put down this fun and captivating book! Have you ever wondered . . . What if I was struck by lightning? What if people had gills? What if an asteroid hit the earth? What if I put aluminum foil in the microwave? What if the polar ice caps melted? What if I threw a penny off the Empire State Building? About HowStuffWorks.com “50 Best Websites” Time Magazine “A+” Washington Post Online “Top 100 Classics” PC Magazine “Best Science and Technology Resource” Yahoo! InternetLife “Great Site” MSNBC


Dark Futures  (2002)
by Russell Blackford

Exit Strategy: A novel  (2002)
by Douglas Rushkoff

Douglas Rushkoff’s latest salvo on complacent media culture, set in 2008, features Jamie Cohen, a young hacker who, like the biblical Joseph, suffers betrayal and then penance (via the talk-show circuit) before joining forces with a venture capitalist determined to turn everyone into mindless consumers. Meanwhile, Jamie’s former pals have developed a way to kill the Web’s - and the stock market’s - profit-making capacities. A dazzling satire of 1990s dot-com mania, this McLuhanesque cultural critique establishes a new publishing precedent: it is the first “open-source” ebook, annotated by online readers. This first print edition includes the best of their footnotes chosen by the author.


Cyberia: Life in the Trenches of Hyperspace  (2002)
by Douglas Rushkoff

This is an ideas-led, exuberant documentary about the converging strands of a new era, the empowerments of cyber-technology, and the precipitation of new ways of life. Originally written in 1994, it outlines the strands of the cyber subculture as it was emerging—the favored drugs, the influential individuals, the hackers and their motivations, the science chaos and the complexity of fractuals. This book will endure as a reminder of how modern cyberculture came about—a note to the future form an individual perceptive enough to grasp the profound effects of the cyber revolution.


Anthropic Bias: Observation Selections Effects in Science and Philosophy  (2002)
by Nick Bostrom

Anthropic Bias explores how to reason when you suspect that your evidence is biased by “observation selection effects”—that is, evidence that has been filtered by the precondition that there be some suitably positioned observer to “have” the evidence. This conundrum—sometimes alluded to as “the anthropic principle,” “self-locating belief,” or “indexical information”—turns out to be a surprisingly perplexing and intellectually stimulating challenge, one abounding with important implications for many areas in science and philosophy.

There are the philosophical thought experiments and paradoxes: the Doomsday Argument; Sleeping Beauty; the Presumptuous Philosopher; Adam & Eve; the Absent-Minded Driver; the Shooting Room.

And there are the applications in contemporary science: cosmology (“How many universes are there?”, “Why does the universe appear fine-tuned for life?”); evolutionary theory (“How improbable was the evolution of intelligent life on our planet?”); the problem of time’s arrow (“Can it be given a thermodynamic explanation?”); quantum physics (“How can the many-worlds theory be tested?”); game-theory problems with imperfect recall (“How to model them?”); even traffic analysis (“Why is the ‘next lane’ faster?”).

Anthropic Bias argues that the same principles are at work across all these domains. And it offers a synthesis: a mathematically explicit theory of observation selection effects that attempts to meet scientific needs while steering clear of philosophical paradox.


Mind in Time: The Dynamics of Thought, Reality, and Consciousness  (2002)
by Allan Combs, Mark Germine, Ben Goertzel eds.

This volume presents a collection of essays that all share a common concern with time, process and consciousness. The chapters represent a variety of different perspectives and the authors span the disciplines of psychology, mathematics, physics and psychiatry.


Creating Internet Intelligence  (2002)
by Ben Goertzel

Creating Internet Intelligence is an interdisciplinary treatise exploring the hypothesis that global computer and communication networks will one day evolve into an autonomous intelligent system, and making specific recommendations as to what engineers and scientists can do today to encourage and shape this evolution. A general theory of intelligent systems is described, based on the author’s previous work; and in this context, the specific notion of Internet intelligence is fleshed out, in its commercial, social, psychological, computer-science, philosophical, and theological aspects.


On Death, Dying and Not Dying  (2001)
by Peter Houghton

Drawing upon his extensive professional experience as a counselor in palliative care, Houghton raises many profound questions in each of the areas he discusses, and is not afraid to admit his own previous misconceptions…this is a book that contributes significantly to our knowledge of the natural dying process.


Marshall Brain’s How Stuff Works : How Much Does the Earth Weigh  (2001)
by Marshall Brain

From the Experts Who Brought You the Book How Stuff Works Come 101 of the Most Intriguing Questions and Their Fascinating Answers! Have you ever wondered How many sheets of paper can be produced from a single tree? Why FM radio stations all end in an odd number? What causes a sonic boom? Where the world’s fastest computer is located? If you’ve ever scratched your head and thought, “why?,” you’ll love How Much Does the Earth Weigh? With more than 100 of the most popular questions culled from the intriguing “Question of the Day” segment of HowStuffWorks.com, this fun book answers questions you never even thought to ask. Written in Marshall Brain’s award-winning style, this book explains in language you can understand the complexities behind some of the world’s imponderables. You’ll never look at a light socket, gas pump, or Web page the same way again! Praise for HowStuffWorks.com “A+” Entertainment Weekly Online 1999 50 Best of the Web Popular Science Magazine Best of the Web 2000 Forbes Magazine “A+” Washington Post Online Pick of the Week Yahoo! Super Site TBS Superstation 1999 Reference Site of the Year LibrarySpot.com For further intriguing content, visit www.HowStuffWorks.com Visit Hungry Minds at www.HungryMinds.com


Marshall Brain’s How Stuff Works  (2001)
by Marshall Brain

Have you ever wondered… How helicopters are able to fly sideways? Why you crave chocolate and caffeine? What stops a car when you step on the break pedal? Where email messages go after you press the Send button? In this definitive, generously illustrated guide, Marshall Brain and the experts at the award-winning Web site HowStuffWorks.com explain the magic behind everyday items and processes. You’ll learn what the Internet really is, how airplanes stay up and submarines stay down, what GPS is and why you might need it, and how a whole film can be captured on a tiny DVD. With this eye-opening book, you’ll never look at a toaster, cell phone, or tattoo parlor the same way again! Hundreds of full-color illustrations and photos showing step-by-step images of how stuff works. More than 135 informative articles show you how the items you use every day work. All explained in Marshall Brain’s trademark down-to-earth voice.


Il Filosofo é Nudo  (2001)
by Riccardo Campa

Epistemological Dimensions of Robert Merton’s Sociology  (2001)
by Riccardo Campa

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