Neurotechnology is an emerging technology that edits the body and mind through the nervous system by techniques including electronics and machines, making it possible manipulate the brain. Neurotechnology has the potential to cure brain disorders or spinal cord injuries, or to be used as a human enhancement technology.
A variety of brain stimulation techniques have been developed to manipulate the brain. These techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and cranial electrotherapy stimulation.
Examples of neurotechnology include the CAT scanner, fMRI, Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Positron Emission tomography (PET), EEG, high-throughput genetic sequencing, brain proteomics, psychopharmaceuticals, and biochips including DNA microarrays and RNA or protein chips. These technologies also include neural modeling simulations, genetic engineering, cellular implantation, biological computers, Brain-computer interfaces, and Neural prosthetics.
Neurotechnology has now developed to the point where the firing of single neurons can be correlated with specific behaviors. The revolution in technologies that has made this maturation possible is wide-ranging and is now referred to as neurotechnology.
Neurotechnologies present neuroethical challenges
As these new technologies have emerged, ethicists have begun to raise questions of how the new technologies might be practically used and what policies might govern their use. Applications such as deception detection, neuromarketing and the potential for artificially augmenting cognition all have policy implications. The use of neurotechnologies also raises questions related to Cognitive liberty.